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From IIT-M, Nano-Scale Device To Detect Big Explosives WORK



Researchers at the Indian Institute of Technology, Madras, (IIT-M) have developed a novel device that can visually detect even a single molecule of TNT used in the making of powerful explosives. Apart from national security, this ultra-sensitive and highly selective detection method will have applications in early identification of diseases and in radiation prevention, the IIT researchers claim.




From IIT-M, Nano-Scale Device To Detect Big Explosives



The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) was designed and constructed by a team of scientists from California Institute of Technology, MIT, and industrial contractors, and funded by the National Science Foundation. It was designed to open the field of gravitational-wave astronomy through the detection of gravitational waves predicted by general relativity.[110] Gravitational waves were detected for the first time by the LIGO detector in 2015. For contributions to the LIGO detector and the observation of gravitational waves, two Caltech physicists, Kip Thorne and Barry Barish, and MIT physicist Rainer Weiss won the Nobel Prize in physics in 2017.[111] Weiss, who is also an MIT graduate, designed the laser interferometric technique, which served as the essential blueprint for the LIGO.[112]


Among such miniature devices are one designed by a team at IIT-Mumbai to detect a heart attack with just a drop of blood, sans other tests, within an hour or two. It has four cardiac markers which detect the presence of proteins which are released at the time of a heart attack. The technology has been transferred to Nano sniff Technology, based in Mumbai. This institute has also fabricated another tiny apparatus to sniff out explosives, and transferred the technology to BigTech Labs, Bengaluru, for manufacture. And, one to suggest the best antibiotic for urinary track infection, designed by BITS Pilani, Hyderabad, will be manufactured by a startup, while the Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysuru, is waiting for an industry to pick up the technology for its microscopic device which will tell if food has turned stale or ready to eat.


Speaker: Michael ThompsonAbstract: The superconducting proximity effect in graphene can be used to create Josephson junctions that are tunable using a field effect gate. This has the potential to add additional functionality to technologies based on these junctions and hybrid graphene Josephson junctions have already been used to create microwave circuits, qubits, bolometers and superconducting interference devices (SQUIDs). In order to optimise these electronic circuits, it is important to understand the sources of noise that may hinder their performance. At cryogenic temperatures, the noise of such devices is below that of our room temperature electronics. By performing a cross-correlation technique using two parallel measurement channels and with thousands of time averages, we are able to measure the noise of graphene junction SQUIDs to below the limits of our electronics. From these measurements we find that the sensitivity of our graphene SQUIDs is comparable with conventional devices made using tunnel-junctions. Graphene junctions are more robust against electrostatic discharge than metal-oxide tunnel-junctions making graphene SQUIDs an attractive alternative. However, it has been shown that the current-phase-relation (CPR) of ballistic graphene junctions is non-sinusoidal. Through simulations of both sinusoidal and skewed CPRs, we find that SQUIDs with a skewed CPR, as expected for our devices, have reduced sensitivity. This skewness can be varied with temperature and carrier density, which has important implications for the design and operation of electronic circuits making use of these junctions. Biography: Michael is a Lecturer and RAEng Research Fellow working in the Department of Physics at Lancaster University. He completed his PhD in 2014 studying narrow bandgap GaInSb quantum wells for optoelectronics. Following this he worked on InAs nanowire photodetectors, graphene Josephson junctions and other 2D material devices. In 2019 he was awarded an RAEng research fellowship to develop low temperature electronics using 2D materials.


Speaker: Mathieu LuisierAbstract: With the rapid decrease of the semiconductor device dimensions, technology computer aided design (TCAD) has entered a new era where one- dimensional models and (semi-)classical approximations such as the drift-diffusion, energy-balance, or Boltzmann Transport equations are no more valid to simulate the properties of nanoscale components. These approaches must be replaced by more advanced, but computationally more intensive ones based on discrete quantum mechanics, including energy quantization, geometrical confinement, and tunneling currents, capable of going beyond the ballistic limit of transport, and operating at the ab-initio level (from first-principles). In this talk, two applications of a simulator fulfilling these requirements will be presented: the investigation of devices based on 2-D materials and the study of atomic-scale conductive bridging random access memory (CBRAM) cells. It will be shown how an accurate modeling tool can reveal the physics of these systems and provide design guidelines to experimentalists.


Bio: Since 2016 Mathieu Luisier is Associate Professor of Computational Nanoelectronics at ETH Zurich, Switzerland. He graduated in electrical engineering in 2003 and received his Ph.D. in 2007, both from ETH Zurich. After a one-year post- doc at the same institution, he joined in 2008 the Network for Computational Nanotechnology at Purdue University, USA, as a research assistant professor. In 2011 he returned to ETH Zurich to become Assistant Professor. His current research interests focus on the modeling of nanoscale devices, such as multi-gate nanowires, III-V MOSFETs, band-to-band tunneling transistors, 2-D semiconductors, memristors, or lithium ion batteries. He won an honorable mention at the ACM Gordon Bell Prize for high performance computing in 2011 and was finalist in 2015. In 2013, he received a Starting Grant from the European Research Council (ERC).


Speaker: Mathieu LuisierAbstract: With the rapid decrease of the semiconductor device dimensions, technology computer aided design (TCAD) has entered a new era where one- dimensional models and (semi-)classical approximations such as the drift-diffusion, energy-balance, or Boltzmann Transport equations are no more valid to simulate the properties of nanoscale components. These approaches must be replaced by more advanced, but computationally more intensive ones based on discrete quantum mechanics, including energy quantization, geometrical confinement, and tunneling currents, capable of going beyond the ballistic limit of transport, and operating at the ab-initio level (from first-principles). In this talk, two applications of a simulator fulfilling these requirements will be presented: the investigation of devices based on 2-D materials and the study of atomic-scale conductive bridging random access memory (CBRAM) cells. It will be shown how an accurate modeling tool can reveal the physics of these systems and provide design guidelines to experimentalists. Bio: Since 2016 Mathieu Luisier is Associate Professor of Computational Nanoelectronics at ETH Zurich, Switzerland. He graduated in electrical engineering in 2003 and received his Ph.D. in 2007, both from ETH Zurich. After a one-year post- doc at the same institution, he joined in 2008 the Network for Computational Nanotechnology at Purdue University, USA, as a research assistant professor. In 2011 he returned to ETH Zurich to become Assistant Professor. His current research interests focus on the modeling of nanoscale devices, such as multi-gate nanowires, III-V MOSFETs, band-to-band tunneling transistors, 2-D semiconductors, memristors, or lithium ion batteries. He won an honorable mention at the ACM Gordon Bell Prize for high performance computing in 2011 and was finalist in 2015. In 2013, he received a Starting Grant from the European Research Council (ERC).


Speaker: Dr Sara Ghoreishi-zadehAbstract: Next-generation implantable and wearable medical devices are emerging to address specific unmet healthcare needs, particularly those in medical monitoring and diagnostics. Monitoring of metabolites (e.g., glucose, lactate) in human body is of significant importance in health-care and personalised therapy. In this talk, I will present our sub-mW CMOS IC that enables the fabrication of miniaturised, inductively powered, and implantable devices for multi-metabolite detection. Next, I will illustrate a novel differential sensing technique to enhance the electrochemical sensing performance. I will also present promising results from our sensors that are developed, for the first time, by growing Pt nano-structures on CMOS IC.


Biography: Dr. Sara Ghoreishi-zadeh received the B.Sc. and M.Sc. degrees (both with distinction) in Electrical engineering from Sharif University of Technology, Iran, and the PhD degree from Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Switzerland, in 2015. She then joined the Centre for Bio-inspired Technology, Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Imperial College London, UK. where she is currently a Junior Research Fellow. Her current research focus is integrated circuit and system design for implantable and wearable medical devices. She has been a Review Committee Member and track chair for IEEE conferences including ICECS 2016 and BioCAS 2017. She is an editor of the Journal of Microelectronics and a member of IET and the IEEE CAS, EMB and SSC societies.


Speaker: Dr José FigueiredoAbstract: Microwave photonics brings together a variety of techniques used in microwave and in photonics engineering to provide new functionalities at radio frequencies very difficult or virtual impossible to achieve using only microwave or photonic techniques. New approaches to light modulation, light detection and light and RF generation at microwave and millimetre-wave frequencies have been investigated by combining double barrier quantum well (DBQW) resonant tunnelling diodes (RTDs) with optical components such as optical waveguides, photodetectors and semiconductor lasers. The seminar reviews the collaborative work between the Universities of Algarve and Glasgow aiming the development of novel electronic and optoelectronic integrated devices and circuits that take advantage of the high-speed and highly non-linear properties of RTDs to achieve high frequency optical modulation, photo-detection and to operate as optical and voltage controlled microwave photonic oscillators with significantly lower power consumption and operating voltage, with a small footprint compared with current devices and circuits.


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